Offering cultural diversity on TV and radio

What do we mean by cultural diversity?

Upholding cultural diversity is one of the key goals of Canada's Broadcasting Act. It says that the Canadian broadcasting system should, through both programming and employment opportunities, serve the needs and interests, and reflect the circumstances and aspirations of:

So, in this context, cultural diversity refers to how different groups – like ethno-cultural minorities, Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities – are represented in broadcasting.

CRTC approaches to cultural diversity

The CRTC is using two main approaches to ensure that Canada’s diverse nature is reflected in our broadcasting system. These are:

Programming by and for specific groups

The activities and policies supporting this approach are:

The current “Native Broadcasting Policy”

The Native Broadcasting Policy (Public Notice 1990-89) outlines the criteria for a radio or TV service to broadcast as an Indigenous station. It encourages Indigenous broadcasting by emphasizing the importance of self-ownership and the preservation of Indigenous languages and cultures.  The CRTC will review this policy in the near future to ensure that it is efficient and that it reflects the needs of Indigenous audiences today.  Learn more about the Co-Development of the Indigenous Broadcasting Policy

There are over 50 Type B (licensed) and hundreds of Type A (exempted) Indigenous radio stations across Canada. We recently approved licences for five Type B Indigenous radio stations in five major urban markets. Learn more about these new radio stations.

The Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) is the first national indigenous TV network in the world. It is run by Indigenous people and reflects their communities and the diversity within their cultures, in many of their languages. APTN must be carried by all TV service providers, making it a service for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada.

For lists of Indigenous broadcasters, see the Radio and TV Station Lists.

Ethnic Broadcasting Policy

The Ethnic Broadcasting Policy (Public Notice 1999-117) outlines the criteria for an over-the-air radio or TV service to broadcast as an ethnic station. For example, ethnic television and radio stations must devote a minimum amount of time to ethnic and third-language programming. Local ethnic broadcasters must also reflect local issues and concerns.

Increased licensing of ethnic and third-language stations

Canada’s ethnic broadcasting choices are expanding. Canadian services now include:


Lists of ethnic radio and TV stations and specialty services.

Expanded availability of non-Canadian third-language services

In 2004, the CRTC began to make it easier for more third-language, non-Canadian television services to be available in Canada.

Reflecting diversity in all broadcast services

Presenting people from diverse cultures is not just the responsibility of ethnic broadcasters. Canadians from all backgrounds, and persons with disabilities, should also be able to recognize themselves in “mainstream” TV and radio programming.

The activities and policies supporting this approach are:

Reflection of diversity in mainstream programming

The Television Policy (Public Notice CRTC 1999-97) states that the broadcasting system should be a mirror in which all Canadians can see themselves portrayed accurately, fairly and without stereotypes. The broadcasting system should also give opportunities to producers, writers, technicians and artists from different cultural and social backgrounds.

The CRTC has asked broadcasters to:

The CRTC has also been working with the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB) in supporting cultural diversity objectives. The CRTC has asked the CAB to:

The CAB developed the Equitable Portrayal Code, a code to improve the way visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, and persons with disabilities are represented and portrayed. Broadcasters must adhere to the code, as part of their licence agreement.

In 2007, the CRTC’s policy on cultural diversity widened to include radio broadcasters. Radio broadcasters must now use the Canadian Association of Broadcasters’ Best Practices for Diversity in Private Radio (Public Notice 2007-122).

In 2016, the CRTC published a new policy on local television and community programing. The policy reiterates the importance of the continued local reflection. The policy framework also includes new measures to ensure that community channels adequately reflect the population and provides all Canadians with access to the broadcasting system as a whole. (Policy framework for local and community television CRTC 2016-224)

Other policies that touch on cultural diversity include:

Better access to TV for persons with disabilities

Persons with disabilities must be able to access programming. For more information, see Acessibility of telecommunications and broadcasting services.

Related information

Broadcasting by and for Aboriginal peoples

Native Broadcasting Policy (Public Notice CRTC 1990-89)

Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) (Decision CRTC 1999-42)

Order Respecting the Distribution of the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) (Public Notice CRTC 1999-70)

Ethnic and third-language services

Ethnic Broadcasting Policy (Public Notice CRTC 1999-117)

Improving the diversity of third-language television services (Public Notice CRTC 2004-96)
Exemption order respecting certain third-language television undertakings (Public Notice CRTC 2007-33)

Cultural diversity

Commission’s response to the report of the Task Force for Cultural Diversity on Television (Public Notice CRTC 2005-24)

Commission’s response to the Canadian Association of Broadcasters’ final report on the presence, portrayal and participation of persons with disabilities in television programming (Public Notice CRTC 2006-77)

Representation of cultural diversity on television - Creation of an industry/community task force (Public Notice CRTC 2001-88)

Canadian Association of Broadcasters’ Best Practices for Diversity in Private Radio; Reporting requirements on cultural diversity for commercial radio operators (Public Notice CRTC 2007-122)

Equitable Portrayal Code (Public Notice CRTC 2008-23)

The broadcasting industry

Building on Success - A Policy Framework for Canadian Television (Public Notice CRTC 1999-97)

Amendments to the CRTC's Employment Equity Policy (Public Notice CRTC 1997-34)

Date modified: