TV Access for People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Closed Captioning

Closed captioning makes TV programs accessible for people who are deaf or hard of hearing by translating audio into text captions displayed on the screen. The captions also identify who is speaking and the emotions they are feeling, and include icons for elements such as music (♪♪).

You can access closed captioning by selecting the “CC” button on most TV remote controls manufactured after July 1993.

Why is closed captioning important?

Television plays an important role in shaping Canadian society. It is a primary source of news, entertainment, and sports programming, and plays a critical role in making Canadians aware of the wide range of ideas and perspectives that make up the rich fabric of our society. As a result, it is important to ensure that all Canadians can benefit from what TV has to offer.

Close captioning enables people who are deaf or hard of hearing to benefit from TV. It has the added benefits of being useful for people learning to read or speak a second language, and of enabling people to enjoy TV programming in restaurants, gyms, and other locations where the sound is often turned off.

The CRTC and closed captioning

Recognizing the importance of closed captioning, in 2007 the CRTC directed the broadcasting industry to establish two closed captioning working groups – one for the French-language television market, the other for the English-language market.

The groups included representatives from private and public television broadcasters, distributors, consumer and advocacy groups representing persons who are deaf or hard of hearing, and captioning providers.

Their task was to help the CRTC establish captioning quality standards that would become conditions of licence for broadcasters and would ensure consistent and reliable closed captioning quality throughout the Canadian broadcasting system.

Based on the groups’ work, the CRTC developed policies to establish:

More recently, as a result of its Let’s Talk TV initiative, the CRTC also expressed the expectation that closed captioning will extend beyond traditional broadcasting platforms to include online broadcasting.

Quantity of closed captioning

When it comes to closed captioning quantity, the CRTC requires most broadcasters to:

Quality of closed captioning

CRTC standards also regulate the accuracy of closed captioning, which is the level of exactness between captions and the audio content of a program. For pre-recorded programming, accuracy includes correct spelling.

For pre-recorded programs, broadcasters must target a captioning accuracy rate of 100%. For live programming, French-language captioning must target an accuracy rate of 85%. For English-language live captioning, broadcasters must reach an accuracy rate of at least 98, as measured by the method described in the Canadian NER Evaluation Guidelines. 

The Canadian NER Evaluation Guidelines, are set out in Appendix 2 to English-language closed captioning mandatory quality standards relating to the accuracy rate for live programming, Broadcasting Regulatory Policy CRTC 2019-308, 30 August 2019.

CRTC policies also address:

Canadian NER Model

For information related to the Canadian NER Model can be found:

NER Website

In Broadcasting Regulatory Policy CRTC 2019-308, the Commission determines that the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC) will be the body that will oversee the certification process for NER evaluators. In this role, the CBSC will:

The information at this portal should also be made available in American Sign Language (ASL) and Langue des signes québécoise (LSQ).

You can visit for more information.

Monitoring closed captioning

As part of the condition for their licences, the CRTC requires broadcasters to put in place a monitoring system to ensure that closed captioning is included in the broadcast signal and that captioning reaches the viewer in its original form.

The CRTC also requires broadcasters to monitor and report on closed captioning as follows:

Extending closed captioning to the online world

As a result of its Let’s Talk TV initiative, in 2015 the CRTC expressed the expectation that closed captioning will be extended beyond traditional broadcasting platforms to include online broadcasting.

To ensure that all Canadians are able to receive content in as complete a form as possible, even if that content is accessed online, the CRTC:

Registering a complaint about closed captioning

To help ensure that broadcasters comply with its closed captioning standards, the CRTC accepts complaints about problems with closed captioning, and it can take action based on those complaints.

If the CRTC believes there is a compliance issue, it can request that a broadcaster submit its monthly accuracy rate calculations. If it appears there is repeated non-compliance with the closed captioning standards, the CRTC may impose additional monitoring requirements on a broadcaster.

All broadcasting complaints, including ones relating to closed-captioning, must be made in writing. For more information, see How to make a broadcasting complaint.

Related information

For more information about closed captioning and the CRTC, see:

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